Verbena cultivation


How is verbena grown and how does it multiply? Things to know, advice, diseases and parasites, characteristics and treatments of the botanical Verbena.


There Verbena is a herbaceous plant grown for ornamental purposes in jar and in gardens for its splendid and prolonged flowering.


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Characteristics and generalities of the verbena

There Verbena It is a perennial or annual herbaceous plant of the Verbenaceae family native to America widely cultivated in Europe and in all Italian regions both in the open ground and in pots and as a plant with a hanging habit.

Ornamental verbena is a herbaceous plant of variable size with a bushy or shrubby habit depending on the variety.

The plant has a fairly developed fasciculated root that produces numerous quadrangular and green herbaceous stems, covered with a corata and dense whitish down.

The leaves they are dark green; they have a lanceolate and hairy lamina, with marked ribs and a serrated margin.


THE flowers globose inflorescences are collected which appear on the apical part of the herbaceous stems. The corolla is composed of 5 heart-shaped petals whose color, depending on the species, varies from white to pink, from bright red to intense purple, from blue to violet. Verbena flowers attract numerous butterflies and pollinating insects.


Verbena blooms profusely from early summer to late autumn. In regions with a mild climate, flowering of some species begins in May.


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Verbena cultivation


It is a plant that in order to bloom profusely must be grown in bright, sunny and sheltered places from the winds. It does not tolerate the cold climate and low temperatures therefore the perennial varieties of Verbena must be sheltered in the winter period in greenhouses or in heated places. In the variant verbena officinalis it is known for its healing properties.


Verbena prefers soft, porous, organic-matter-rich soil. The optimal growing medium is a mixture of universal soil mixed with a little sand to help drain water from irrigation. Alternatively, a soil mixed with a good amount of pumice stone is excellent.

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There Verbena grown in pots it requires a constantly humid soil but without water stagnation in the saucer.


It requires regular watering during drought periods and especially in summer. In general, moderate doses of water are administered and the leaves are avoided wetting to avoid the risk of fungal diseases. Watering in winter should be reduced or suspended entirely depending on the climate.



To favor flowering and tillering, fertilize every 15 days with a specific fertilizer for flowering plants rich in phosphorus (P), diluted in the irrigation water. Alternatively, every 40 days, apply a slow release granular fertilizer to the base of the soil.


Multiplication of the verbena

The reproduction of the verbena occurs by seed and by apical cuttings.


Sowing of Verbena

Verbena reproduces by sowing in seedbeds in the period February-March.

The seeds, very small and dark in color, are first mixed with a handful of sand and then sprinkled on the surface of the wet substrate and covered with a thin layer of other soil (0.5 cm). The soil is sprayed with water at room temperature.


The seedbeds are then placed in a dark place and at temperatures of about 20 ° to stimulate the germination of the seeds.

Once germination has taken place, the seedbeds should be moved to a bright place to favor the development of the aerial part of the seedlings.

When the seedlings are vigorous enough they can be planted permanently in holes spaced about 20 cm apart.

Propagation of verbena by cuttings

This agamic propagation method that produces plants genetically identical to the mother one is carried out in the month of August.

  • Approximately 8 cm long apical cuttings are taken from healthy and vigorous branches and the leaves located in the lower part are eliminated.
  • The cut parts are first treated with a little rooting hormone and immediately after they are rooted in a mixture of sand and peat in equal parts at a temperature between 16 and 18 ° C.
  • For all the time necessary for rooting, the substrate must be kept slightly humid. The appearance of new leaves signals that rooting has taken place and the seedlings can be repotted either in pots or in the open ground.


Verbena plant

At the time of planting or planting fertilize the planting holes of the verbene with granulated fertilizer for geraniums. To obtain thick and compact cushions, the plants should be placed 15 cm from each other.


Verbena: cultivation in pots

Verbena plants are easy to grow in pots and prostrate plants are perfect for hanging containers. The perfect pot must be large and deep to allow for regular, filled root development and to ensure space for fast canopy growth.

A layer of expanded clay covered with a mixture composed of 2 parts of good soil and 1 part of coarse sand should be placed on the bottom of the pot. The seedlings should be spaced at least 10 cm apart.

Repotting the verbena

Verbena seedlings, after purchase, require repotting in larger containers. The plant is extracted from the pot and the roots are gently untangled to eliminate the pot effect to the advantage of the vegetative part. The holes in the vase are covered with pieces of earthenware and then add an inch or two of sand. The soil is added and finally planted. Fill the gaps with other soil that must be compacted with your hands and finally water.


Verbena pruning

To stimulate the emission of new flowers, lightly topping the withered flower stems.

For a decisive stumbling, the twigs of the verbena can be cut up to a few cm from the ground using well-sharpened scissors and disinfected by flame or with bleach.


Verbena parasites and diseases

Among the parasites, the verbena suffers from the attack of aphids and the whitefly which can be fought with a nettle pesticide. The tender shoots and leaves are spoiled by caterpillars.

Among the fungal diseases it fears the root rot caused by water stagnation and the white disease or powdery mildew that forms whitish deposits on the leaves.

Sometimes almost all verbene they can be affected by diseases that stain the leaves and stop their development and for this reason, at the first symptoms, it is necessary to intervene by spraying the aerial part with a spray-type fungicide.

Cures and treatments

Verbena plants grown in pots and grown as perennials should be sheltered from the cold of winter under porches or canopies. To keep away the caterpillars of butterflies, just plant a few fennel plants in the ground. The caterpillars of the butterflies may which feed on the feed on the fennel. Fungal diseases must be counteracted by spraying the aerial part of the plants with a specific fungicide and above all by avoiding water stagnation in the soil and wetting of the foliage.


Varieties of verbena

Among the many rustic and commercial species of verbena we remember the most cultivated and the most appreciated for their copious flowering.

Verbena officinalis

It is a wild variety appreciated in medicine for its beneficial properties.It grows spontaneously throughout Europe and in the flowering period it gives lively and spectacular spots of color.

Verbena canadensis

Verbena canadensis

It is a herbaceous plant native to the United States resistant to adversity suitable for cultivation in pots and in the open ground. From late spring through late autumn it produces white, pink, lavender or purple flowers.


Verbena bonariensis

This species, originally from South America, is widespread in our latitudes and, compared to the others, produces longer and mostly erect stems. In summer, from June to October, it produces many lavender flowers.

Verbena-Peruvian -flowers

Peruvian verbena

This species native to Peru in winter goes into vegetative rest in fact it loses the aerial part which reappears strong and vigorous in the following spring. Due to its drooping posture it is suitable for cultivation in suspended pots which enhance its beauty. In summer until the first cold it produces bright red flowers with a white throat. reminiscent of those of Lipiia and those of Lantana.


Verbena pulchella

A very vigorous evergreen herbaceous plant that produces beautiful blue-violet flowers suitable for growing in all types of soil including the most difficult ones.


Verbena plants are popular in gardening. The tallest species are used to create flower beds, while those with a compact habit to cover rock gardens and those with a hanging habit in hanging baskets. on the edges of stone walls. Pairing a Verbena with fennel helps twice. The caterpillars of butterflies feed on fennel. The adults feed on the nectar of the Verbene flowers.

Language of flowers

In the language of flowers, Verbena in particular the one with white flowers symbolizes purity of soul and purpose.


Verbena toxicity

Verbena is not a poisonous plant for dogs and cats, for humans and does not cause contact allergies either.

Verbena purchase advice

When buying verbena plants in the garden, make sure the roots are white. If the roots are greyish it is certainly an old plant and therefore will not give you …


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