There marjoram it’s a aromatic plant coming from Asia and Africa grown in pots and in the ground for its delicate flavor.
General characteristics Marjoram
There marjoram, Origanum majorana, like the common oregano belongs to the Labiate family and is native to Asia and Africa where it is cultivated as a perennial.
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There marjoram plant it has very thin fasciculated roots that go into the ground only for a few centimeters.
The aerial part has a bushy habit and is composed of numerous branched, erect and quadrangular stems covered with a thick down.
The leaves are opposite and hairy, oval or elliptical, very small and elongated, no larger than 35 mm, of a glaucous green color. They are aromatic and give off an intense, penetrating and delicate odor at the same time.
THE flowers they are pinkish-white in color and are gathered in globose-ovoid terminal racemes carried at the apex of the secondary branches. The corolla is bilabiated with white petals at the beginning of flowering, then later they tend to yellowish. Pollination is entomogamous, that is, it occurs thanks to bees and other pollinating insects.
THE fruits they are tetrachenes or oval capsules containing numerous seeds.
The seeds are very small and light; they have a spherical shape, smooth texture and brown color.
Ripe seeds are fertile and if well preserved they germinate even after 2-3 years from harvest.
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Marjoram blooms from July to September.
It is an aromatic plant that loves a warm climate and sunny exposure. It cannot stand the cold and is therefore grown as an annual.
Marjoram is a plant that grows well in common fertile, well-drained and above all dry vegetable or garden soil.
It is a plant that loves dry soil so it should be watered little and often, without soaking it to avoid dangerous water stagnation. It requires frequent watering during the growth phase and especially during flowering.
Marjoram is a rustic plant therefore it does not require particular fertilization. The soil must be enriched at the time of planting a fertilizer balanced in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
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Marjoram: cultivation in pots
Like other aromatic plants, Marjoram can also be easily grown in pots
on the balcony, preferring a southern exposure in the spring months and partial shade in the summer months. To avoid overheating of the roots, the pot must be light in color and filled with soft, well-drained soil, even on the bottom.
The Marjoram plant grown as an annual is repotted in spring using a larger container than the previous and new fertile soil.
Multiplication of Marjoram
The plant reproduces easily by seed, by cutting and by dividing the tufts.
Since the seeds are very small and light before sowing them in seedbeds or in the ground, it is better to mix them with sand for a homogeneous distribution.
Sowing of marjoram in seedbeds
The sowing of the marjoram is carried out in a protected seedbed towards the beginning of spring by distributing the seeds in a compost formed in equal parts of fertile soil and sand. The seedbed should be placed in the shade covered with a plastic sheet (which will be removed and dried daily) at a temperature of about 12-15 ° C. The soil should be kept moist until germination which generally takes two to four weeks. When the seeds sprout, the plastic sheet is removed and the seedbed is moved to a bright place. When the plants are large enough they can be transplanted and treated as adult plants.
Sowing of marjoram in the open ground
Sowing in the open field is carried out in April by distributing the seeds in parallel rows in the soft and well-worked soil. The seeds must be buried a few mm deep and after germination the seedlings must be thinned out at a distance of about 30-50 cm both on the row and between the rows.
Multiplication by cuttings
The multiplication of marjoram by cutting takes place in June. 8-10 cm long cuttings are cut from the non-flowering basal shoots and planted in a mixture of peat and sand, then kept in a cool greenhouse (about 10 ° C) until the moment of rooting, then transplanted and treated as adult plants.
Propagation by division of the tufts
There multiplication of marjoram by division of the tufts is carried out in March or October.
The young seedlings obtained with this agamic propagation technique must be kept in a cool place until they have taken root and then, in late spring or early summer, they are transplanted to their permanent home.
Planting or planting Marjoram transplant
The transplanting of marjoram seedlings should be carried out in late spring or early summer in loose and well-draining soil, with a good dose of organic matter, domestic compost or earthworm humus. The seedlings are transplanted at a distance of at least 40 cm between the rows and 25-30 cm apart on the rows.
Harvesting of Marjoram
The marjoram harvest takes place in summer in the period from July to September, by cutting the stems at ground level. If it is used fresh, the twigs are collected as needed. The seeds are harvested when fully ripe towards the end of September.
Pests and diseases of Marjoram
It is a rustic plant quite resistant to fungal diseases such as rust, powdery mildew is, on the other hand, sensitive to root rot and to the attack of beetles.
Preservation of marjoram
It is advisable to keep the marjoram in glass jars after drying the twigs and flowers in special well-ventilated rooms.
Cures and treatments
Frequent watering after sowing or transplanting and continuous weeding from weeds.
Variety of marjoram
Sweet or white marjoram
Also known as Garden marjoram it is a herbaceous plant that in full vegetative development forms a small bush of erect stems with glaucous leaves covered with a thick down which they are coated with. The flowers that bloom in summer, in the months of July and August, are gathered in small rounded inflorescences; the seeds are small, smooth, spherical and brown in color. It is grown as an annual, as it is not resistant to frost. Sweet marjoram is the most used variety for food, phytotherapeutic or aromatic purposes due to its fresh, penetrating and slightly camphorated aroma and its much more delicate flavor than that of common oregano.
Known as common marjoram, it is a more vigorous herbaceous plant with lignified stems at the base and velvety pale green leaves. It is grown as a perennial as it resists cold and frost.
Calories of marjoram
1 teaspoon of fresh or dried marjoram make are 2 Calories.
Uses of marjoram
The twigs of this small herbaceous plant are used to flavor roasts, salads, sauces and its oil, obtained by distillation, is used for the preparation of liqueurs and for the preparation of creams.
In phytotherapy, it is recommended for its digestive, antispasmodic and relaxing properties. Marjoram herbal tea and infusions are effective against menstrual pain, colitis, insomnia, anxiety and headache.
The essential oil is recommended in case of digestive disorders and 4-5 drops of marjoram essential oil can be used with a spoonful of honey 3 times a day.
Language of flowers
Marjoram has been the symbol of goodness and comfort since ancient times. Due to its posture always facing the sky it is also considered of the plant contemplation and spirituality.
The Origanum Majorana was imported to Europe by the Crusaders.